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Why Reflect?

Reflective Practice

Under Construction

METACOGNITION consists of three basic elements:

Developing a plan of action
Maintaining/monitoring the plan
Evaluating the plan

For further information, see North Central Regional Education's Laboratory's page on Metacognition

There are a variety of strategies to implement reflective practice. On a simple level, we could think about reflection in the past, present, and future tense. Donald Schön refers to  ‘reflection-in-action’ as analysis in the present tense...during the performance of a task.  Killion and Todnem (1991) categorize reflection in three directions:

 Three Reflective Directions
  1. First, reflection-on-action requires looking back on what one has accomplished and reviewing the actions, thoughts, and product.
  2. The second form of reflection is reflection-in-action. In this activity, the individual is responsible for reflecting while in the act of carrying out the task. If, for example, the student is writing a story and has left out the setting, reflection-in-action could guide the correction of a major component of the story writing.
  3. The final reflective form centers on reflection-for-action. This reflection form expects the participant to review what has been accomplished and identify constructive guidelines to follow to succeed in the given task in the future.
Killion, J., & Todnem, G. (1991). A process for personal theory building. Educational Leadership, 48(7), 14-16.

Reflection in action - During

Performance or Volitional Control
Processes that occur action and affect attention and action

Self-control processes help learners to focus on tasks and optimize efforts
Attention focusing
Task Strategies
Self-observation allows learners to vary aspects of their performance

Reflection on action - After

Processes which occur after performance efforts and influence a person’s response to that experience

Planning and implementing a strategy provides an evaluation metric for learners to attribute successes or failures to, rather than low ability
Casual attribution
Adaptive-defensive response

Reflection for action - Before

Influential processes which precede efforts to act and set the stage for action

Goal setting increases self-efficacy and intrinsic interest
Task Analysis
Goal setting
Strategic Planning
Self-motivation beliefs increase commitment
Self-motivational beliefs:
Outcome expectations
Intrinsic interest/value
Goal Orientation

Updated on Jun 28, 2010 by Helen Barrett (Version 10)

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Reflection-3 functions-only.jpg - on May 11, 2009 by Helen Barrett (Version 1)