First, a few definitions. In the portfolio literature, we refer to an artefact. That term comes from the field of archealogy and simply means a document or a piece of work. Each document that we save needs a caption, or a brief explanatory reflection about each piece of work in a portfolio. When we look for evidence of learning in a portfolio, there are three components. First, there is the artefact, or piece of work. The second component is the learner's reflection on that work, or their rationale or argument about why this artefact demonstrates achievement of a particular goal or learning outcome. Finally, when this evidence is used for high stakes assessment, there needs to be validation of the learner's self-assessment, which is a teacher or assessor's evaluation of that work.